K1: Principles of networks: OSI and TCP/IP models, data, protocols and how they relate to each other; the main routing protocols; the main factors affecting network performance including typical failure modes in protocols and approaches to error control; virtual networking
K2: the concepts, main functions and features of at least three Operating Systems (OS) and their security functions and associated security features.
K3: Cyber security concepts and why cyber security matters to business and society; Security assurance concepts and how assurance may be achieved in practice including penetration testing and extrinsic assurance methods.
K4: the main types of common attack techniques; also the role of human behaviour, including the significance of the ‘insider threat’. Including: how attack techniques combine with motive and opportunity to become a threat. Techniques and strategies to defend against attack techniques and mitigate hazards
K5: the significance of identified trends in cyber security threats and understand the value and risk of this analysis. How to deal with emerging attack techniques (including ‘zero day’), hazards and vulnerabilities relevant to the digital systems and business environment.
K6: lifecycle and service management practices to an established standard to a foundation level for example Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) foundation level.
K7: cyber incident response processes, incident management processes and evidence collection/preservation requirements to support incident investigation
K8: Understands the main features, applicability and how to apply the significant law, regulations and standards relevant specifically to cyber security. To include: laws, regulations & standards relating to personal data and privacy (e.g. Data Protection Act 2018 implementing General Data Protection Regulation); use of digital systems (e.g. Computer Misuse Act 1990 ); regulatory standards for cyber security, intelligence collection and law enforcement (e.g. Intelligence Services Act 1994, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000; standards for good practice in cyber security (e.g. ISO 27001, CyberEssentials, NIST) and any updates or additions
K9: ethical principles and codes of good practice of at least one significant cyber security professional body and the ethical responsibilities of a cyber security professional.
K10: how to analyse employer or customer requirements to derive security objectives and taking account of the threats and overall context develop a security case which sets out the proposed security measures in the context with reasoned justification
K11: horizon scanning including use of recognised sources of threat intelligence and vulnerabilities.
K12: common security architectures and methodologies; be aware of reputable security architectures that incorporates hardware and software components, and sources of architecture patterns and guidance. How cyber security technology components are typically deployed in digital systems to provide security functionality including: hardware and software to implement security controls
K13: the basic terminology and concepts of cryptography; common cryptography techniques in use; the importance of effective key management and the main techniques used; legal, regulatory and export issues specific to the use of cryptography
K14: risk assessment and audit methodologies and approaches to risk treatment; approaches to identifying the vulnerabilities in organisations and security management systems; the threat intelligence lifecycle; the role of the risk owner in contrast with other stakeholders
K15: principles of security management systems, including governance, organisational structure, roles, policies, standards, guidelines and how these all work together to deliver the identified security outcomes.
K16: function and features of significant digital system components; typical architectures; common vulnerabilities in digital systems; principles and common practice in digital system security
K17: programming or scripting languages